Pillar 1 focuses on the role of small states in European integration. It examines how small states have responded to the ongoing European integration and how small EU member states work within the EU institutions. The course draws on examples of how the Nordic States have responded to European integration and why they tend to be reluctant in the European project. Furthermore, the course focuses on to what extent small states can be influential within the European Union and what methods they use to have a say within the EU institutions.
This lecture opens the course by discussing various definitions of small states and their implications for understanding the challenges and opportunities for these states.
Anders Wivel, Head of Studies, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen and Baldur Þórhallsson, Professor of Political Science and Jean Monnet Chair in European Studies, University of Iceland.
The seminar introduces the academic debate on small states in the EU, and moves on to a discussion of the ways small states can pursue their national interests in the EU.
Anders Wivel, Head of Studies, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen and Caroline Grøn, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen.
The seminar gives a basic introduction to organization theory and based on this, addresses some of the difficulties small states can face when attempting to coordinate their European efforts.
Caroline Grön, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen
The seminar looks specifically at the European Commission as avenue for pursuing national interests. Based on recent studies of the cooperation between small EU states and the Commission, the seminar gives an impression of the opportunities but also challenges facing small EU member states in pursuing national interests vis-à-vis the Commission.
Caroline Grøn, Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen.
The Nordic countries are sometimes characterized as norm entrepreneurs in international relations. The seminar discusses how, why and to which extent the Nordic countries may be viewed as norm entrepreneurs and what other small states may learn from the Nordic experience.
Anders Wivel, Head of Studies, Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Copenhagen.
- Are Scandinavians not Good Europeans? Their Reluctance of the Icelandic Political Elite to Participate in European Integration
This seminar will examine the reluctance of the Icelandic political elite to take part in the European project. The session will discuss Iceland’s European policy from the 1950s, the 2009 EU membership application and the freezing of the application in 2013.
Baldur Þórhallsson, Professor of Political Science and Jean Monnet Chair in European Studies, University of Iceland.
Additional reading material for Pillar 1
Archer, Clive, Alyson Bailes and Anders Wivel (eds), 2014. Small States and International Security: Europe and Beyond. London: Routledge.
Aron, R., 1966. Peace and war; a theory of international relations. Doubleday, Garden City, N.Y.
Bailes, Alyson J. K. and Baldur Thorhallsson, 2013. ‘Instrumentalizing the European Union in Small State Strategies’. Journal of European Integration, 35 (2), 99-115.
Bailes, Alyson, Jean-Marc Rickli and Baldur Thorhallsson, 2014. ‘Small states, survival and strategy’ in Clive Archer, Alyson Bailes and Anders Wivel, Small States and International Security: Europe and Beyond. London: Routledge, 26-45.
Bailes, Alyson JK, Bradley A. Thayer, and Baldur Thorhallsson, 2016. ‘Alliance theory and alliance “Shelter”: the complexities of small state alliance behaviour’. Third World Thematics 1(1), 9-26.
Björkdahl, Annika, 2007. ‘Swedish norm entrepreneurship in the UN’. International Peacekeeping, 14 (4), 538-52.
Björkdahl, Annika, 2008. ‘Norm Advocacy: a small state strategy to influence the EU’. Journal of European Public Policy, 15 (1), 135-54.
Browning, Christopher, 2006. ‘Small, Smart and Salient? Rethinking Identity in the Small States Literature’. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 19 (4), 669-84.
Cooper, Andrew F. and Timothy M. Shaw (eds), 2009. The Diplomacies of Small States. Houndmills: Palgrave.
Grøn, Caroline, Peter Nedergaard and Anders Wivel (eds) (2015) The Nordic Countries and the European Union, London: Routledge
Fox, Annette Baker, 1959. The Power of Small States. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
Handel, Michael, 1981. Weak Slates in the International System. London: Frank Cass.
Jakobsen, Peter Viggo, 2009. ‘Small States, Big Influence: The Overlooked Nordic Influence on the Civilian ESDP’. Journal of Common Market Studies 47 (1), 81-102.
Jervis, Robert, 1978. ‘Cooperation under the Security Dilemma’. World Politics, 30 (2), January, 167-214.
Keohane, Robert O., 1969. ‘Lilliputians’ Dilemma: Small States in International Politics’. International Organization, 23 (2), 291-310.
Morgenthau, Hans, 1972. Science: Servant or Master? New York: New American Library.
Neumann, Iver B. and Sieglinde Gstöhl, 2006. ‘Introduction: Lilliputians in Gulliver’s World?’ in Christine Ingebritsen, Iver B. Neumann, Sieglinde Gstöhl and Jessica Beyer (eds), Small States in International Relations. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 3-36.
Olson, Mancur and Richard Zeckhauser, 1966. ‘An economic theory of alliances’. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 48 (3), 266-79.
Panke, Diana, 2011. ‘Small states in EU negotiations: Political dwarfs or power-brokers?’. Cooperation and Conflict, 46 (2), 123-43.
Rothstein, Robert, 1968. Alliances and Small Powers. New York: Columbia University Press.
Thorhallsson, Baldur, 2006. ‘The Size of Sates in the European Union: Theoretical and Conceptual Perspectives’. Journal of European Integration, 28 (1), 7-31
Väyrynen, Raimo, 1971. ‘On the definition and measurement of small power status’, Cooperation and Conflict, 6 (1), p. 91-102.
Vital, David, 1967. The Inequality of States: A Study of the Small Power in International Relations. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Wivel, Anders, 2005. ‘The security challenge of small EU member states: Interests, identity and the development of the EU as a security actor’. JCMS: Journal of Common Market Studies, 43(2), 393-412.
Suggested essay topics for Pillar 1
- What are the defining characteristics of a ‘small state’?
- What are the major challenges and opportunities facing small states in the European Union today?
- What lessons may other small states learn from the experience of the Nordic states acting as norm-entrepreneurs in international relations?
- What parameters can small states manipulate to improve their ability to lobby the European Commission?
- Are the Nordic countries playing a different role than other small states in international affairs? To which extent? How? Why?
- How can small states overcome the challenges they face in the European union today?
- How has globalization changed the opportunities and challenges of small states in the international security?